Legal philosophy is concerned with normative theories of law. Historically, utilitarian thinking about law is associated with the great philosopher, Jeremy Bentham. In contemporary legal theory, the utilitarian approach is frequently championed by scholars who work in the law and economics tradition. The philosopher Immanuel Kant formulated a deontological theory of law and a contemporary deontological approach can be found in the work of the legal philosopher Ronald Dworkin. Contemporary virtue jurisprudence is inspired by philosophical work on virtue ethics. There are many other normative approaches to the philosophy of law, including critical legal studies and libertarian theories of law.
Philosophers of law are also concerned with a variety of philosophical problems that arise in particular legal subjects, such as constitutional law, contract law, criminal law, and torts. Thus, philosophy of law addresses such diverse topics as theories of contract law, theories of criminal punishment, theories of tort liability, and the question of whether judicial review is justified.
The philosophy of law, philosophers of law, philosophy and doctrine of right, natural law, international monetary law, the system of international court of justice, international law of the UNO, legal positivism, legal realism, legal interpretivism, the view of the laws in utilitarianism and deontology, instrumentalism and American legal theory, ethics and the rule of law, judicial activism, punishment and responsibility and freedom's law, philosophical approaches to legal problems, authority, constitutionalism, responsibility and justice in a globalizing world, law of business and commerce, international business taxations, international law, public law, civil and private law, human rights law, criminology and sociological interface between culture, race and criminal processes, human rights in constitutional frameworks and administrative law, legal rules and practices and the social experience of unequal social status and power, criminal procedure are the subjects that an autonomous researcher who tries to get Cosmos International University's PhD and DPh degrees to concentrate on.